WHO defines anemia as a hemoglobin concentration below 11 g / dl between 6 months and 6 years. As hemoglobin values increase with growth may be needed as percentiles tables’ age and sex. Any value below the percentile 3 is diagnostic of anemia. The American Academy of Pediatrics says that to affirm that deficiency must be determined is hemoglobin, hematocrit, presence of microcytosis hypochromia and response to iron therapy (Increase of no less than 1 g / dl of hemoglobin in a month of treatment). This type of anemia shows the highest prevalence in Newborns (RN) low-weight infants at term, between 6 and 24 months old twins. Female adolescence is another important group of highest prevalence.
The treatment for anemia may reduce feelings of fatigue and significantly improve quality of life of the individual. The aim is to increase the hemoglobin content of blood and oxygen carrying red blood cells, resulting in a higher level of energy and stamina.
There are several options to treat anemia depending on the cause that has arisen.
* Vitamins and iron
If there is a lack of iron, folic acid or vitamin B12, the anemia is fought with a dietary supplement in pill form of iron, folic acid or vitamin B12 injections. Iron injections may be used if oral therapy is not effective.
* Blood transfusion
Blood transfusions replace blood cells that are missing, but do not solve the underlying cause of anemia, so they are needed frequent transfusions. The short-term benefits, together with the costs and fear of diseases that can be transmitted by blood, such as hepatitis and HIV, transfusions have a treatment option less viable.
* Erythropoietin treatment
If the body does not produce adequate amounts of erythropoietin, may be given injections of recombinant human erythropoietin definition. This product of genetic engineering is identical to erythropoietin produced by the body (endogenous).
In our country has reported a 47% prevalence of anemia in children 9 to 24 months in urban areas. Bearing in mind the consequences reversible iron deficiency within the first two years of life on the intellectual capacity, it should start treatment Early-preventative, in children who present factors predisposing, before it becomes evident anemia.
It is therefore necessary to consider:
FACTORS RISK: Low birth weight, twins, hemorrhage or hemolysis in infants, feeding with cow’s milk exclusively and early high growth rate.
POPULATION SUBJECT: adolescent girls, infants 6 to 24 months fed cow’s milk, poor socio-economic, family large.
INTAKE IRON IN THE DIET: The absorption of ingested iron is in inverse relationship to the degree of deficiency. There are factors that favor absorption of iron from the diet, such as ascorbic acid, sugar and amino acids. Others difficult, as phytates, phosphates, tannins, bran, and calcium oxalate
ALTERATIONS ABSORPTION: malabsorption syndromes, inflammatory recurrent gastrointestinal, intestinal parasitosis.
REQUIREMENTS IRON: For the first year of life is recommended an income of 7 mg / day, and for the 2nd and 3 rd year of 8 mg / day. From there, even before puberty, the WHO recommended 7 mg / day. In the puberty 12 mg / day for men and 16 women is needed. The Academy American Academy of Pediatrics advises 1mg/kg/day for RNT from 4th month up to 3 years and RNBP 2mg/kg/day from 2 months-12 months, 1mg/kg/day until after the 3rd year.
TREATMENT DRUGS: In choosing the mouth and a salt, ferrous sulfate. The recommended dose is 3 mg / kg / day of elemental Fe + in two or three take, away from meals. If administered with orange juice and sugar improves absorption. The expected response of good therapeutic action reticulocytes is increased from the 4th day, with a peak around 7 to 10 days. If you notice any intolerance (rare), divide the twice-weekly dose Products ferrous sulfate drug drops provide varying amounts should therefore be familiar with one or two products, examples:
Iberol Sun = Fe + 5.25 mg / ml.
Fer In Sol = 0.6 ml/15 mg Fe +
Ferlea Sun = Fe + 25 mg / ml. (1ml = 20 drops)